History Herat’s history is quite turbulent and eventful. Achaemenid records says the city appeared first under the name of Haraiva. Alexander the great was first to built a fortress in the city. Arabs captured the city in 651 C.E.. They fought over the city, lost it and regained it again and again. Herat beacame part of the Samanid, Ghaznavid, Saljuk and Ghorid dynasties subsequently. When Mongols attacked the city, Herat was destroyed completely. Mongols under the command of Ghenghis Khan slaughtered the masses and left the city in ruin.